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Hier findet ihr das gesamte Handbuch und die Nachträge auf einen Blick: Fotos der 20 Jahresfeier. DC New Alcatraz 3. The Federal Reserve allowed some large public bank failures — particularly that of the New York Bank of United States — which produced panic and widespread runs on local banks, and the Federal Reserve sat idly by while banks collapsed.
Friedman and Schwartz argued that, if the Fed had provided emergency lending to these key banks, or simply bought government bonds on the open market to provide liquidity and increase the quantity of money after the key banks fell, all the rest of the banks would not have fallen after the large ones did, and the money supply would not have fallen as far and as fast as it did.
With significantly less money to go around, businesses could not get new loans and could not even get their old loans renewed, forcing many to stop investing.
This interpretation blames the Federal Reserve for inaction, especially the New York branch. One reason why the Federal Reserve did not act to limit the decline of the money supply was the gold standard.
By the late s, the Federal Reserve had almost hit the limit of allowable credit that could be backed by the gold in its possession. This credit was in the form of Federal Reserve demand notes.
During the bank panics a portion of those demand notes were redeemed for Federal Reserve gold. Since the Federal Reserve had hit its limit on allowable credit, any reduction in gold in its vaults had to be accompanied by a greater reduction in credit.
On April 5, , President Roosevelt signed Executive Order making the private ownership of gold certificates , coins and bullion illegal, reducing the pressure on Federal Reserve gold.
When threatened by the forecast of a depression central banks should pour liquidity into the banking system and the government should cut taxes and accelerate spending in order to keep the nominal money stock and total nominal demand from collapsing.
Outright leave-it-alone liquidationism was a position mainly held by the Austrian School. The idea was the benefit of a depression was to liquidate failed investments and businesses that have been made obsolete by technological development in order to release factors of production capital and labor from unproductive uses so that these could be redeployed in other sectors of the technologically dynamic economy.
They argued that even if self-adjustment of the economy took mass bankruptcies, then so be it. Bradford DeLong point out that President Hoover tried to keep the federal budget balanced until , when he lost confidence in his Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon and replaced him.
According to a study by Olivier Blanchard and Lawrence Summers , the recession caused a drop of net capital accumulation to pre levels by The monetary explanation has two weaknesses.
First it is not able to explain why the demand for money was falling more rapidly than the supply during the initial downturn in — These questions are addressed by modern explanations that build on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz but add non-monetary explanations.
Irving Fisher argued that the predominant factor leading to the Great Depression was a vicious circle of deflation and growing over-indebtedness.
The chain of events proceeded as follows:. When the market fell, brokers called in these loans , which could not be paid back. Government guarantees and Federal Reserve banking regulations to prevent such panics were ineffective or not used.
Bank failures led to the loss of billions of dollars in assets. After the panic of , and during the first 10 months of , U.
In all, 9, banks failed during the s. With future profits looking poor, capital investment and construction slowed or completely ceased.
In the face of bad loans and worsening future prospects, the surviving banks became even more conservative in their lending. A vicious cycle developed and the downward spiral accelerated.
The liquidation of debt could not keep up with the fall of prices which it caused. The mass effect of the stampede to liquidate increased the value of each dollar owed, relative to the value of declining asset holdings.
The very effort of individuals to lessen their burden of debt effectively increased it. Paradoxically, the more the debtors paid, the more they owed.
Fisher's debt-deflation theory initially lacked mainstream influence because of the counter-argument that debt-deflation represented no more than a redistribution from one group debtors to another creditors.
Pure re-distributions should have no significant macroeconomic effects. Building on both the monetary hypothesis of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz as well as the debt deflation hypothesis of Irving Fisher, Ben Bernanke developed an alternative way in which the financial crisis affected output.
He builds on Fisher's argument that dramatic declines in the price level and nominal incomes lead to increasing real debt burdens which in turn leads to debtor insolvency and consequently leads to lowered aggregate demand , a further decline in the price level then results in a debt deflationary spiral.
According to Bernanke, a small decline in the price level simply reallocates wealth from debtors to creditors without doing damage to the economy.
But when the deflation is severe falling asset prices along with debtor bankruptcies lead to a decline in the nominal value of assets on bank balance sheets.
Banks will react by tightening their credit conditions, that in turn leads to a credit crunch which does serious harm to the economy. A credit crunch lowers investment and consumption and results in declining aggregate demand which additionally contributes to the deflationary spiral.
Since economic mainstream turned to the new neoclassical synthesis , expectations are a central element of macroeconomic models. Eggertsson and Christina Romer , the key to recovery and to ending the Great Depression was brought about by a successful management of public expectations.
The thesis is based on the observation that after years of deflation and a very severe recession important economic indicators turned positive in March when Franklin D.
Consumer prices turned from deflation to a mild inflation, industrial production bottomed out in March , and investment doubled in with a turnaround in March There were no monetary forces to explain that turn around.
Money supply was still falling and short term interest rates remained close to zero. Before March people expected further deflation and a recession so that even interest rates at zero did not stimulate investment.
But when Roosevelt announced major regime changes people began to expect inflation and an economic expansion. With these positive expectations, interest rates at zero began to stimulate investment just as they were expected to do.
Roosevelt's fiscal and monetary policy regime change helped to make his policy objectives credible. The expectation of higher future income and higher future inflation stimulated demand and investments.
The analysis suggests that the elimination of the policy dogmas of the gold standard, a balanced budget in times of crises and small government led endogenously to a large shift in expectation that accounts for about 70—80 percent of the recovery of output and prices from to The recession of —38 , which slowed down economic recovery from the Great Depression, is explained by fears of the population that the moderate tightening of the monetary and fiscal policy in would be first steps to a restoration of the pre-March policy regime.
In their view, much like the monetarists, the Federal Reserve of which was created in shoulders much of the blame; however unlike the Monetarists , they argue that the key cause of the Depression was the expansion of the money supply in the s, of which led to an unsustainable credit-driven boom.
In the Austrian view it was this inflation of the money supply that led to an unsustainable boom in both asset prices stocks and bonds and capital goods.
Therefore, by the time the Federal Reserve tightened in it was far too late to prevent an economic contraction. According to Rothbard, the government support for failed enterprises and efforts to keep wages above their market values actually prolonged the Depression.
Hans Sennholz , another prominent Austrian economist , argued that most boom and busts that plagued the American economy, such as those in —20 , —43 , —60 , —78 , —97 , and —21 , were generated by government creating a boom through easy money and credit, which was soon followed by the inevitable bust.
The spectacular crash of followed five years of reckless credit expansion by the Federal Reserve System under the Coolidge Administration.
The passing of the Sixteenth Amendment , the passage of The Federal Reserve Act , rising government deficits, the passage of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act , and the Revenue Act of , exacerbated and prolonged the crisis.
Ludwig von Mises wrote in the s: It merely brings about a rearrangement. It diverts capital investment away from the course prescribed by the state of economic wealth and market conditions.
It causes production to pursue paths which it would not follow unless the economy were to acquire an increase in material goods.
As a result, the upswing lacks a solid base. It is not a real prosperity. It is illusory prosperity. It did not develop from an increase in economic wealth, i.
Rather, it arose because the credit expansion created the illusion of such an increase. Sooner or later, it must become apparent that this economic situation is built on sand.
Wallace , Paul Douglas , and Marriner Eccles. It held the economy produced more than it consumed, because the consumers did not have enough income.
Thus the unequal distribution of wealth throughout the s caused the Great Depression. According to this view, the root cause of the Great Depression was a global over-investment in heavy industry capacity compared to wages and earnings from independent businesses, such as farms.
The proposed solution was for the government to pump money into the consumers' pockets. That is, it must redistribute purchasing power, maintaining the industrial base, and re-inflating prices and wages to force as much of the inflationary increase in purchasing power into consumer spending.
The economy was overbuilt, and new factories were not needed. Foster and Catchings recommended  federal and state governments to start large construction projects, a program followed by Hoover and Roosevelt.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that the [productivity, output and employment] trends we are describing are long-time trends and were thoroughly evident prior to These trends are in nowise the result of the present depression, nor are they the result of the World War.
On the contrary, the present depression is a collapse resulting from these long-term trends. The first three decades of the 20th century saw economic output surge with electrification , mass production and motorized farm machinery, and because of the rapid growth in productivity there was a lot of excess production capacity and the work week was being reduced.
The dramatic rise in productivity of major industries in the U. The gold standard was the primary transmission mechanism of the Great Depression.
Even countries that did not face bank failures and a monetary contraction first hand were forced to join the deflationary policy since higher interest rates in countries that performed a deflationary policy led to a gold outflow in countries with lower interest rates.
Under the gold standard's price—specie flow mechanism , countries that lost gold but nevertheless wanted to maintain the gold standard had to permit their money supply to decrease and the domestic price level to decline deflation.
There is also consensus that protectionist policies such as the Smoot—Hawley Tariff Act helped to worsen the depression.
Some economic studies have indicated that just as the downturn was spread worldwide by the rigidities of the Gold Standard , it was suspending gold convertibility or devaluing the currency in gold terms that did the most to make recovery possible.
Every major currency left the gold standard during the Great Depression. The UK was the first to do so. Facing speculative attacks on the pound and depleting gold reserves , in September the Bank of England ceased exchanging pound notes for gold and the pound was floated on foreign exchange markets.
The UK, Japan, and the Scandinavian countries left the gold standard in Other countries, such as Italy and the U. According to later analysis, the earliness with which a country left the gold standard reliably predicted its economic recovery.
For example, The UK and Scandinavia, which left the gold standard in , recovered much earlier than France and Belgium, which remained on gold much longer.
Countries such as China, which had a silver standard , almost avoided the depression entirely. The connection between leaving the gold standard as a strong predictor of that country's severity of its depression and the length of time of its recovery has been shown to be consistent for dozens of countries, including developing countries.
This partly explains why the experience and length of the depression differed between national economies. Many economists have argued that the sharp decline in international trade after helped to worsen the depression, especially for countries significantly dependent on foreign trade.
In a survey of American economic historians, two-thirds agreed that the Smoot—Hawley Tariff Act at least worsened the Great Depression.
While foreign trade was a small part of overall economic activity in the U. Hardest hit were farm commodities such as wheat, cotton, tobacco, and lumber.
Governments around the world took various steps into spending less money on foreign goods such as: These restrictions formed a lot of tension between trade nations, causing a major deduction during the depression.
Not all countries enforced the same measures of protectionism. Some countries raised tariffs drastically and enforced severe restrictions on foreign exchange transactions, while other countries condensed "trade and exchange restrictions only marginally": The consensus view among economists and economic historians is that the passage of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff exacerbated the Great Depression,  although there is disagreement as to how much.
In the popular view, the Smoot-Hawley Tariff was a leading cause of the depression. The financial crisis escalated out of control in mid, starting with the collapse of the Credit Anstalt in Vienna in May.
With the rise in violence of Nazi and communist movements, as well as investor nervousness at harsh government financial policies. The Reichsbank lost million marks in the first week of June, million in the second, and million in two days, June 19— Collapse was at hand.
President Herbert Hoover called for a moratorium on Payment of war reparations. This angered Paris, which depended on a steady flow of German payments, but it slowed the crisis down and the moratorium, was agreed to in July International conference in London later in July produced no agreements but on August 19 a standstill agreement froze Germany's foreign liabilities for six months.
Germany received emergency funding from private banks in New York as well as the Bank of International Settlements and the Bank of England.
The funding only slowed the process; it's nothing. Industrial failures began in Germany, a major bank closed in July and a two-day holiday for all German banks was declared.
Business failures more frequent in July, and spread to Romania and Hungary. The crisis continued to get worse in Germany, bringing political upheaval that finally led to the coming to power of Hitler's Nazi regime in January The financial crisis now caused a major political crisis in Britain in August The attack on welfare was totally unacceptable to the Labour movement.
MacDonald wanted to resign, but King George V insisted he remain and form an all-party coalition " National government.
Britain went off the gold standard , and suffered relatively less than other major countries in the Great Depression. In most countries of the world, recovery from the Great Depression began in There is no consensus among economists regarding the motive force for the U.
The common view among most economists is that Roosevelt's New Deal policies either caused or accelerated the recovery, although his policies were never aggressive enough to bring the economy completely out of recession.
Some economists have also called attention to the positive effects from expectations of reflation and rising nominal interest rates that Roosevelt's words and actions portended.
According to Christina Romer , the money supply growth caused by huge international gold inflows was a crucial source of the recovery of the United States economy, and that the economy showed little sign of self-correction.
The gold inflows were partly due to devaluation of the U. Schwartz also attributed the recovery to monetary factors, and contended that it was much slowed by poor management of money by the Federal Reserve System.
Former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke agreed that monetary factors played important roles both in the worldwide economic decline and eventual recovery.
Women's primary role were as housewives; without a steady flow of family income, their work became much harder in dealing with food and clothing and medical care.
Birthrates fell everywhere, as children were postponed until families could financially support them. Among the few women in the labor force, layoffs were less common in the white-collar jobs and they were typically found in light manufacturing work.
However, there was a widespread demand to limit families to one paid job, so that wives might lose employment if their husband was employed.
In rural and small-town areas, women expanded their operation of vegetable gardens to include as much food production as possible. In the United States, agricultural organizations sponsored programs to teach housewives how to optimize their gardens and to raise poultry for meat and eggs.
Quilts were created for practical use from various inexpensive materials and increased social interaction for women and promoted camaraderie and personal fulfillment.
Oral history provides evidence for how housewives in a modern industrial city handled shortages of money and resources. Often they updated strategies their mothers used when they were growing up in poor families.
Cheap foods were used, such as soups, beans and noodles. They purchased the cheapest cuts of meat—sometimes even horse meat—and recycled the Sunday roast into sandwiches and soups.
They sewed and patched clothing, traded with their neighbors for outgrown items, and made do with colder homes. New furniture and appliances were postponed until better days.
Many women also worked outside the home, or took boarders, did laundry for trade or cash, and did sewing for neighbors in exchange for something they could offer.
Extended families used mutual aid—extra food, spare rooms, repair-work, cash loans—to help cousins and in-laws. In Japan, official government policy was deflationary and the opposite of Keynesian spending.
Consequently, the government launched a nationwide campaign to induce households to reduce their consumption, focusing attention on spending by housewives.
In Germany, the government tried to reshape private household consumption under the Four-Year Plan of to achieve German economic self-sufficiency.
The Nazi women's organizations, other propaganda agencies and the authorities all attempted to shape such consumption as economic self-sufficiency was needed to prepare for and to sustain the coming war.
The organizations, propaganda agencies and authorities employed slogans that called up traditional values of thrift and healthy living. However, these efforts were only partly successful in changing the behavior of housewives.
Many economists believe that government spending on the war caused or at least accelerated recovery from the Great Depression, though some consider that it did not play a very large role in the recovery.
It did help in reducing unemployment. The rearmament policies leading up to World War II helped stimulate the economies of Europe in — By , unemployment in Britain had fallen to 1.
The mobilization of manpower following the outbreak of war in ended unemployment. When the United States entered into the war in , it finally eliminated the last effects from the Great Depression and brought the U.
Businessmen ignored the mounting national debt and heavy new taxes, redoubling their efforts for greater output to take advantage of generous government contracts.
The majority of countries set up relief programs and most underwent some sort of political upheaval, pushing them to the right.
Many of the countries in Europe and Latin America that were democracies saw them overthrown by some form of dictatorship or authoritarian rule, most famously in Germany in The Dominion of Newfoundland gave up democracy voluntarily.
Australia's dependence on agricultural and industrial exports meant it was one of the hardest-hit developed countries. By , GDP had shrunk to less than half of what it had been in , exacting a terrible toll in unemployment and business failures.
Influenced profoundly by the Great Depression, many national leaders promoted the development of local industry in an effort to insulate the economy from future external shocks.
After six years of government austerity measures , which succeeded in reestablishing Chile's creditworthiness, Chileans elected to office during the —58 period a succession of center and left-of-center governments interested in promoting economic growth by means of government intervention.
Consequently, as in other Latin American countries, protectionism became an entrenched aspect of the Chilean economy. China was largely unaffected by the Depression, mainly by having stuck to the Silver standard.
China and the British colony of Hong Kong, which followed suit in this regard in September , would be the last to abandon the silver standard.
In addition, the Nationalist Government also acted energetically to modernize the legal and penal systems, stabilize prices, amortize debts, reform the banking and currency systems, build railroads and highways, improve public health facilities, legislate against traffic in narcotics and augment industrial and agricultural production.
On November 3, , the government instituted the fiat currency fapi reform, immediately stabilizing prices and also raising revenues for the government.
The sharp fall in commodity prices, and the steep decline in exports, hurt the economies of the European colonies in Africa and Asia.
For example, sisal had recently become a major export crop in Kenya and Tanganyika. During the depression it suffered severely from low prices and marketing problems that affected all colonial commodities in Africa.
Sisal producers established centralized controls for the export of their fibre. The depression severely hurt the export-based Belgian Congo economy because of the drop in international demand for raw materials and for agricultural products.
For example, the price of peanuts fell from to 25 centimes. In the country as a whole, the wage labour force decreased by Political protests were not common.
However, there was a growing demand that the paternalistic claims be honored by colonial governments to respond vigorously.
The theme was that economic reforms were more urgently needed than political reforms. Students were trained in traditional arts, crafts, and farming techniques and were then expected to return to their own villages and towns.
The crisis affected France a bit later than other countries, hitting hard around The depression was relatively mild: Ultra-nationalist groups also saw increased popularity, although democracy prevailed into World War II.
France's relatively high degree of self-sufficiency meant the damage was considerably less than in nations like Germany.
The Great Depression hit Germany hard. The impact of the Wall Street Crash forced American banks to end the new loans that had been funding the repayments under the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan.
The financial crisis escalated out of control and mid, starting with the collapse of the Credit Anstalt in Vienna in May. An international conference in London later in July produced no agreements but on August 19 a standstill agreement froze Germany's foreign liabilities for six months.
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